About Triple Helix

University as a leader

The Triple Helix approach, developed by Henry Etzkowitz and Loet Leydesdorff, is based on the perspective of University as a leader of the relationship with Industry and Government, to generate new knowledge, innovation and economic development. Innovation is comprehended as a resultant from a complex and dynamic process of experiences in the relations between science and technology, research and development inside and through university, industry and government spheres, in a spiral of endless transitions.

The argument is based on a review of the relationship between University and Society. A second academic revolution is occurring and beyond teaching and research the University is incorporating a third mission as an active player in the economic development through creating scientific and technological knowledge and, consequent, innovation. The research groups acts as a quasi-firms and interact with other helix actors. As a consequence, an Entrepreneurial University emerges where the linkages between the spheres found a new configuration. Intermediation elements and organizations are also structured. Spin-off companies, incubators and technological parks; intellectual property and technology commercialization offices; networks of knowledge; local productive and innovation arrangements and systems; and corporative universities emerge as a resultant product of these new linkages.

The Triple Helix approach comprehend the interaction between the three helix as a way to identify and deal with deep changes in economic, institutional and intellectual world due a society organized in knowledge basis. These interactions occur in many levels and result in:
1) an internal transformations in each helix
2) an influence from organizations of one sphere in the others
3) the creation of new structures due to the overlap resulted by the interaction and
4) a recursive effect among these three levels.

Interaction and innovation

The networks create new dynamics of intentions, strategies and projects which add an important value, in the organization and harmonization process, in the existent infra-structure to reach your targets. Each actor from a sphere keeps considerable autonomy, but simultaneously assumes new rules and a new comprehension and conformation of the economic dynamic.

The Triple Helix approach was developed as an ex-post concept, as a reality of countries where innovation has been associated with business based on R&D activities. In the way that the rule of codified knowledge in innovation has increased, research and entrepreneurial Universities start to play fundamental role in this process. The reality of developing countries is different. The transformations in the world economic scenery placed these countries in the challenge of converge efforts to improve productive systems and structure innovative systems through generation, accumulation and application of knowledge, and additionally, obtain comparative advantages needed to the well succeed integration in the international market of goods and services. In this context, Triple Helix metaphor is utile as an analytical frame to comprehend innovation process and to propose and implement public policies, especially in science, technology and innovation with the objective to enlarge and support the interaction between the actors of different helix.

Triple Helix Conference I Amsterdam, 1996 II New York, 1998 III Rio de Janeiro, 2000 IV Copenhagen, 2002 V Turin, 2005 VI Singapore, 2007 VII Glasgow, 2009 VIII Madrid, 2010 IX Stanford, 2011 X Indonesia, 2012 XI London, 2013
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